M. Tchaplyguine, R. R. Marinho, M. Gisselbrecht, J. Schulz, N. Mårtensson, S. L. Sorensen, A. Naves de Brito, R. Feifel, G. Öhrwall, M. Lundwall, S. Svensson, and O. Björneholm
The size of neutral free clusters as manifested in the relative bulk-to-surface intensity in core level photoelectron spectroscopy
J. Chem. Phys. 120, 345 (2004).
A new approach for obtaining an estimate of the effective size of the free neutral clusters is proposed. The approach relies on an experimental measure of the surface and interior or "bulk" cluster atoms provided by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and on a model for the attenuation of photoelectrons ejected from the bulk of the cluster as the result of the ionizing irradiation. The experimental part gives the ratio of the electron signal from the bulk cluster atoms to that from the cluster surface atoms for a wide range of cluster sizes and electron kinetic energies. The attenuated response of the bulk atoms is modeled using an exponential law with the cluster size and kinetic-energy-dependent electron escape depth as parameters. For the experimental size range, model-based calculations for Ar, Kr, and Xe clusters are presented. The cluster size estimates obtained from comparison of the model calculations and experimental results agree well with those determined from the parameters of the cluster creation process. The combination of experiment and modeling also makes it possible to estimate the effective escape depth for electron propagation in free clusters. For Ar, Kr, and Xe clusters of varying mean size, absolute determination of the surface and bulk electron binding energies of the core levels used in the experiments has also been made.
Link to the complete paper (if available):
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